This episode opens with a view from Dr. Neil DeGrasse Tyson’s ‘Spaceship of the Imagination’ (his name, not mine) while it is once again orbiting Earth. Our narrator begins, “Having trouble finding a continent, the past is another planet, actually it’s many planets.” Now Dr. Tyson is standing on earth and, once again, the brainwashing begins with him telling us, “I’m standing on the vast amount of time that has elapsed since the Big Bang.” For those who might not have been following along, the Big Bang is the evolutionist’s “just so” story of the origin of our universe. As we have documented already, this is a miracle of physics, as the following excerpt from episode 5 of the Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey illustrates.
Now we are asked, “To imagine that all the matter and energy in the universe was concentrated into something no larger than this.” Dr. Tyson holds up an orb the size of a golf ball. He tells us, “This was the size of the universe when it was one trillionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of one second old.” He continues, “All the matter and energy of 100 billion galaxies now splayed across the billions of light years was once pent up in something the size of a marble.” [Rowitt, S. (2014). The Cosmos: (Part 6).]
The same scientists that unreservedly embrace evolutionary cosmology espoused by Dr. Tyson scoff at and ridicule those who believe, “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth, Gen. 1:1. That is because they have characterized all references to God as superstitious polytheistic paganism, something the Hebrew Scriptures warn against, but more about that later. Now the producers of this miniseries refer to the cosmic calendar they have used in previous programs, thereby compressing billions of years into a single year. Dr. Tyson tells us, “It’s morning, about 350 millions years ago. Our world was a mere 4 billion years old. Earth looks so different; you might not even know the place.” He continues, “Stars could not help because the constellations were different back then. The dinosaurs were still 100 million years in the future. There were no birds, no flowers, the air was different too.” Then Dr. Tyson ducks to avoid being hit by a dive-bombing dragonfly with a 2-foot wingspan.
He continues, “The atmosphere had more oxygen than any other time in Earth’s history, before or since.” We are told, “This allowed insects to grow much larger than they do today.” So we can see this phenomenon, Dr. Tyson quickly sidesteps a giant millipede while explaining, “Now, insects don’t have lungs, life-giving oxygen is taken in through openings outside their bodies and transported through a network of tubes. If an insect were too large, the outer reaches of these tubes would absorb all the oxygen before it could get to its internal organs.” All of this is intended to set up an explanation for the gigantism that was associated with the Carboniferous period when the evolutionists tell us the atmosphere contained twice as much oxygen than it does today. Our narrator now sidesteps a giant scorpion so he can illustrate that there would be no problem getting the oxygen down those long respiratory tubes to the giant insect’s internal organs. Why? We are told, “This is why the dragonflies are the size of eagles and the millipedes are the size of alligators.” He asks, “Why was there so much oxygen back then? It was produced by a new kind of life.” At this juncture, the credits begin to role for this installment of The Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey.
What is not included in the introduction to episode 8 of the Cosmos is the fact that the antediluvian world was different from the world that emerged after the flood. Dr. Tyson has been telling us that the long evolutionary history of our past has been buried and is no longer available for examination. Now we factor in the extinction events that are explanations for everything from the disappearance of the dinosaurs to the killer climate changes and you have the rest of the story. However, don’t think that Dr. Tyson is going to wrap this series up anytime soon. He is just getting started.
The “just so” story of plant evolution
Just in case you might have missed the main point of this miniseries, we are being indoctrinated with the latest version of molecules-to-men evolution. The story of everything known as the Theory of Evolution begins with an explosion that produces everything else in the known universe. The stars eventually seed the universe with all the elements necessary to assemble the first self-replicating organism. The first bacteria (according to evolutionary biologists) made their appearance about 3 billion years ago. They believe they were anaerobic (non-oxygen consuming microbes) heterotrophs. Remember, Darwin’s Theory proposes that simple life, through the mechanisms of natural selection (survival of the fittest) and beneficial mutation will be able to transform into every living organism that has ever existed. So, whenever we are seeing their best guess concerning the chronology of life, it is always going to conform to their millions and billions of year’s timeline and their assumption that all of this, given enough time, is what really happened.
The reason that we start with anaerobes is that evolutionists believe that the primordial atmosphere on planet Earth was virtually oxygen free. According to their timeline, first were bacteria that are similar (if not identical) to modern cyanobacteria. They say they showed up approximately 2 billion years ago. These are the organism that evolutionists say developed photosynthesis and this allowed our atmosphere to become oxygen rich.
Photosynthesis, another evolutionary miracle
If anyone has forgotten, Dr. Tyson has already covered photosynthesis in episode 5. Let’s review his description of this incredible process:
Now our narrator takes us back into his vehicle where we shrink so we are small enough to see the process of photosynthesis. We have to be small enough to see what Dr. Tyson calls “the good stuff.” He is referring to chlorophyll, a molecule that can convert sunlight into energy. Now we can peer into the atomic level to see photosynthesis at work. Our narrator tells us that there is an assembly line at the heart of this “molecular industrial complex.” He remarks that it happens too fast for us to see, so they slow it down about “a billion times.” He observes that this process takes place in two shifts. Then, in an amazing recreation of the process of photosynthesis, we can see the intricate biochemical machinery of the cell at work.
This process of photosynthesis looked to be an excellent example of what Creationists and Intelligent Design Theorists call irreducible complexity. Dr. Tyson offered no explanation of how a process such as photosynthesis might have evolved. Remember, this is a system he admits was slowed down “about a billion times” so we could see what was happening on the molecular level. We need to remember that we are looking at a molecular power plant that had to be slowed down, not 100 times, not 1000 times, not 10,000 or even 100,000 times. It had to be slowed down “about a billion times” before the animators could even illustrate what is happening inside every plant on planet Earth with the exception of fungi and some parasitic flora. Then, as if he needed to remind everyone that this series isn’t really about the cosmos as much as it is about indoctrinating people to believe in Darwinian evolution, Dr. Tyson explained that “the chloroplast is a 3 billion-year-old solar energy collector.” [Rowitt, S. (2014). Ibid.]
True to form, all of evolution’s “just so” stories leave out the important details of these evolutionary miracles. We are being asked to believe that somehow, through natural selection and the ever-elusive beneficial mutation, new information is being generated. We already know that neither natural selection nor any mutation is capable of generating the new information necessary to create the process of photosynthesis. A biochemical reaction that our narrator has told us was slowed down “about a billion times” so it could be illustrated by the animators. How does a microorganism self-organize a functional 3-billion-year-old solar energy collector like a chloroplast? The devil is in the details, but with evolution, the problem is with their lack of evidence for their completely naturalistic explanation for life.
Lignin changes everything
Dr. Tyson asks, “What kind of life could change the earth’s atmosphere so dramatically, plants that could reach for the sky.” He continues, “Trees, in their competition for sunlight, evolved a way to defy gravity.” This is an excellent example of the tautological aspect of evolutionary theory. Here we have trees, no real attempt being made to explain how a microorganism was able to evolve into the vast variety of flora on planet earth. They just “evolved.” Evolutionary scientists often ascribe mystical powers to evolution as if the mechanisms involved are capable of creating anything new and truly innovative. Consider the following excerpt from the Altenberg 16: An Expose of the Evolution Industry by Susan Mazur (2009). Mazur reports on what Lynn Margulis, geoscientist (symbiosis), University of Massachusetts, Amherst, US and Oxford University, UK had to say concerning the death of neo-Darwinism.
“She [Lynn Margulis] sees natural selection as ‘neither the source of heritable novelty nor the entire evolutionary process’ and has pronounced neo-Darwinism ‘dead’, since there’s no adequate evidence in the literature that random mutations result in new species” (p. 257).
Now Dr. Tyson explains, “Before trees all the vegetation was only about waist high. And then, something wonderful happened.” We get a visual of the inside of a tree and Dr. Tyson explains, “The plant molecule evolved that was both strong and flexible, a material that could support a lot of weight, yet bends in the wind without breaking. Lignin made trees possible. Now, Dr. Tyson continues, life could build upward. This opened a whole new territory. A three dimensional matrix for communities above the ground and earth became the planet of the trees.”
“At that meeting [Francisco] Ayala agreed with me when I stated that this doctrinaire neo-Darwinism is dead. He was a practitioner of neo-Darwinism but advances in molecular genetics, evolution, ecology, biochemistry, and other news had led him to agree that neo-Darwinism’s now dead” (p. 278). [Mazur, Susan (2009). The Altenberg 16: An Expose of the Evolution Industry. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.
I want to note that evolutionary scientists are always proposing mechanisms for their fantastic ‘just so” stories. Lignin, like so many other wonderful creations of evolution, has garnered the attention of the best and the brightest of the evolutionary faithful. After all, you cannot simply say, “Something wonderful happened” with regard to the serendipitous evolution of lignin. Jing-Ke Weng, Ph.D. from Purdue University and Clint Chapple, Ph.D. University of Guelph, Canada are professors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They have written about the development of lignin biosynthesis. Lignin is considered one of the key factors that allowed land plants to flourish in terrestrial ecosystems. Here is an excerpt from the introduction of an article concerning the evolution of lignin.
The earliest unequivocal fossil evidence suggests that the earliest land plants arose c. 450 million yr ago during the Late Ordovician (Stewart & Rothwell, 1993). The actual colonization of land by plants could have begun tens of millions of years earlier during the Early Cambrian, considering that the appearance of dispersed plant spores predated the first land plant megafossils by c. 50 million years (Kenrick & Crane, 1997; Gensel, 2008). It is reasonable to envision that the algal ancestors of early land plants had been constantly washed onto freshwater and marine shores, thus providing the early populations on which Darwinian selection could operate. After arriving on or adjacent to these terrestrial environments, pioneering land plants were immediately confronted with several major challenges, including exposure to damaging UV-B radiation from which water had protected their ancestors, lack of structural support once provided by buoyancy, desiccation stress and, eventually, co-evolving herbivores and pathogens (Raven, 1984). To cope with many of these stresses, a series of specialized metabolic pathways, often referred to as secondary metabolism, evolved in early land plants, (emphasis added) among which phenylpropanoid metabolism was probably one of the most critical. The acquisition of the ability to deaminate the amino acid phenylalanine and hydroxylate the aromatic ring of subsequent metabolites led to the ability to accumulate simple phenylpropanoids with absorbance maxima in the UV-B range (280–320 nm). Such newly acquired features imparted early land plants, especially their vulnerable haploid spores, with the ability to resist UV irradiation, which made survival on land possible (Lowry, et al. 1980). [Jing-Ke Weng, Jing-Ke & Chapple, Clint (2010). The origin and evolution of lignin biosynthesis. New Phytologist 24 June 2010. Accessed 5.19.14.]
Note that there are several assumptions at work in this “just so” version of the evolution of lignin. The most glaring of these, aside from the assumed evolutionary timeline, is the ability of a plant to “cope with many of these stresses” facing it by evolving a “series of specialized metabolic pathways…” I find that evolutionary scientists will always propose ways to support a naturalistic explanation for their evolutionary view of reality. Just because we are able to understand the biochemistry of lignin producing plants, it does not mean we know how it developed in the first place. The same is true concerning the fact that we can explain the survival of the fittest, but cannot explain the arrival of the fittest. Add to this the magic ingredient of Darwinian evolution, deep time, and anything is possible. Remember, plants had to have developed these abilities because they demonstrate them in nature. That does not necessarily mean they developed their abilities by purely evolutionary means. Creationists look at these special qualities as being designed, preprogrammed into the DNA enabling trees to reproduce, to be fruitful and multiply after or according to their own kind.
Now Dr. Tyson tells us, “But lignin had a downside, it was hard to swallow.” He explains, “When nature’s demolition crew, the fungi and bacteria, tried to eat lignin, it got a real bad case of indigestion. And termites wouldn’t evolve for at least another 100 million years.” Dr. Tyson asks, “What to do with all those dead trees?” He continues, “It took the fungi and bacteria millions of years to evolve the biochemical means to consume them. Meanwhile, the trees just kept springing up, dying, falling over and were buried by the mud that built up over eons. Eventually, there were hundreds of billions of trees entombed in the earth, buried forests all over the earth. What possible harm could come from that?”
We are going to hear another scenario that is rooted in deep time. Remember, the evolutionary timeline has already been established. The story we are being told is, by Dr. Tyson’s own admission, “the past is another planet, actually its many planets.” He will also tell us that the evidence for this has long since been buried, covered over by a series of doomsday scenarios meant to give us insight into what has happened. Not what might have happened. No, that would not be consistent with their presentation of evolution as an historical fact. Given their need to hang on this framework the millions to billions of years of deep time, they have cobbled together a story of life on planet earth, they are forced to present what they think might have happened in the far-distant past.
As we shall see, evolution always finds a way, or does it?
In this “just so” story of lignin, as we find in every other deep time story of evolution, there is another explanation for what we discover. As creationists, we need to remind everyone that we are examining the same exact evidence as our evolutionary counterparts. The difference is in our conclusions. Both of our worldviews inform our interpretations concerning the data we observe. While evolutionists must hang all of their evidence on the framework of the alleged billions of years of evolutionary time, creationists are not beholding to the concept of deep time. We believe the evolutionary timeframe is in error. What if everything they say took place over eons of time was really the result of one huge event, the great flood described in Genesis.
What we do know is that evolutionists must explain how inorganic substances came to life without the agent of a Creator. Then, after overcoming the challenge of spontaneous generation, all life has to be connected, eventually traced back to their ancestors. This too requires evidence that in almost every major division of life is still missing.
Uniformitarianism, the present is the key to the past
Uniformitarianism is a doctrine of geology that the current geologic processes, occurring at the same rates observed today and in the same manner as in the past, account for all of the Earth’s geological features. It is of note that one of the principal proponents of uniformitarianism, Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875), had a large influence on Charles Darwin, who later wrote The Origin of Species in 1859. This view of extreme gradualism would have the unintended consequence of the rejection of sudden catastrophic events, one of them the worldwide cataclysmic flood described in the Bible.
Today we understand that there are several observable examples that catastrophic events do shape much of the earth’s geology. Uniformitarianism, together with the Geologic Column, presupposed by Lyell based on uniformity, has been challenged by geologic features such as poly-strata fossils. In spite of the evidence evolutionists posit that polystrate fossils can be explained by differing rates of disposition of sediments or that, in the case of a tree with roots, they were growing when initially buried quickly rather than slowly). Add to this list misplaced fossils, missing layers and misplaced layers including layers in reverse order or “ancient” layers found above “modern” layers and the evolutionary reconstruction of the past viewed through the lens of deep time and any reconstruction of the past becomes a rather dubious exercise. Furthermore, observed cataclysmic events such as the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980 have validated Catastrophism, which is contrary to Uniformitarianism. We now know that catastrophe has had a significant role in forming Earth's currently observable features. This is the question at hand. Is what we are observing today the result of eons of time or the result of a massive worldwide catastrophe of enormous proportions and power? Creationists look at the geologic features of our planet and see the results of that immense event.
The next scene opens with the view of a cliff in Nova Scotia that Tyson tells us, “Is another kind of calendar. It tells the story of that other world that flourished right here.” He is pointing to a polystrate fossil that he characterizes as “the death mask of that 100 million-year-old tree. Now we get a quick explanation of a type of fossilization known as petrifaction. He explains how the oxygen and the carbon dioxide cycle balances as the trees die and are turned back into CO2. He notes, “But if the trees are buried before they can decay, two things will happen. They will take the carbon and the stored solar energy with them and leave the oxygen behind to build up in the atmosphere. “That’s what happened about 300 million years ago. There was an O2 surplus and that’s how the bugs got so big.” Now he asks, “And what became of all that buried carbon? It lay there for eons before dealing life its most devastating blow of all time.”
More tales of uniformitarianism
Now the camera pans a beach purportedly somewhere in Nova Scotia. Dr. Tyson tells us, “There are places on this planet where you can walk through time and read the history written in the rocks.” He continues to tell us that this same beach in Nova Scotia is one of them. “Every layer is a page.” We had already heard this speech in a previous episode. Our narrator used the Grand Canyon as the poster boy for millions and millions of years. Never mind that the dates for the layers in the Grand Canyon range from 7 to 140 million years old, but we’re in Nova Scotia, not Nevada. Now Dr. Tyson explains, “Each layer represents a flood, one after the other, over and over for millions of years.”
This is the crux of the matter. Even evolutionary geologists will admit that catastrophic events can shape the earth’s topography. We would point to the Grand Canyon and posit it was the result of a huge amount of water over a relatively short period of time (Catastrophism). Evolutionists believe it was a small amount of water over eons of time that shaped the Grand Canyon (Uniformitarianism). Dr. Tyson continues, “The layer cake of flood deposits was slowing buried and turned into the rock by heat and pressure. The same forces that built mountains then tilted them and lifted them along with the entombed fossil forest with the new layers always deposited on top of the older ones. All the pages are in the correct order bearing witness to what happened here over millions of years.” (Emphasis added).
Now we see Dr. Tyson slowly walking up an incline telling us, “Every step I take I move about a 1,000 years closer to the present, away from the world of 300 million years ago. 50 million years later lies that point (the camera pans towards the top of the cliff). This, he tells us, was the beginning of the end of the Permian world, an event of unequaled carnage.” Now we see a structure off in the distance, a shrine or temple of sorts that Dr. Tyson calls The Hall of Extinction. We have seen this structure in previous episodes. Ominously he begins to tell us, “Death never came so close to reigning supreme on this world than the quarter million years since.” He continues, “The eruption in what is now called Siberia lasted for 100’s of thousands of years. The lava flooded and buried more than a million square miles. This event dwarfs any volcanic eruption in historical times.” Now our narrator walks right up to the entrance to the Hall of Extinction and tells us, “Huge quantities of CO2 came pouring out of volcanic fissures. This greenhouse gas warmed the climate and this is where the long buried forest of the earlier Carboniferous period reentered the story.
The millions of years just keep coming
If there is a common thread running through all evolutionary scenarios, it is the inclusion of deep time. This necessary ingredient must be placed into the mix. Not only will it allow people to swallow what is clearly a fairytale for grownups (that frogs can really turn into princes over millions of years), but that all life from bacteria to ballet dancers are linked to one another through common ancestry. We have already observed Dr. Tyson tell us the “just so” version of the evolution of sight. Something that was not addressed in that episode is the fact that sight, according to evolutionists, has evolved at different times in different places through a process they call convergent evolution. This term describes the independent evolution of similar and/or identical features in species of different lineages, i.e. the evolution of the compound eye in both marine and terrestrial organisms. This is the doubling down of evolutionary scientists who are hard pressed to explain the evolution of sight from an enlarged pore in the cell wall of a microorganism to the development of the compound eye in mammals. When you swallow the premise that “given enough time, anything is possible,” it becomes easy to expand that to include the creation of, and the near perfection of, everything in nature.
Ironically, the more profound the antievolutionary evidence, the more the evolutionist sees it as evidence for the incredible power of some evolutionary mechanism! All evolutionists interpret convergence as evidence for the incredible power of natural selection.
If anyone doubts there many dedicated evolutionary scientists ascribe near miraculous power to evolutionary processes we have the following excerpt from journalist Susan Mazur’s book, The Altenburg 16. She chronicles how evolutionists see convergence is typified by paleobiologist from Cambridge, Simon Conway Morris, who gives convergence a book-length discussion.
He documents countless examples of astounding convergence, and, taken together with his assumption of evolution as ‘fact’, he is forced to conclude that convergence is inevitable, and extraterrestrial life, if it produces higher lifeforms, would likely produce bilateral large-brained humanoids, much like ourselves! Natural selection is that powerful! Convergence is that inevitable! What is the evidence that convergence is inevitable? Answer: that it exists, abundantly—no further evidence is needed. To evolutionists, sufficient experimental demonstration is not required of evolution, and neither is scientific testability. [Mazur, Susan (2009). Ibid.]
Mazur continues to note that evolutionists instinctively recognize convergence as antievolutionary evidence, because they tend to avoid it in venues where evolution is not assumed as fact, such as debates with creationists. The evolutionist method is to set aside the anti-evolutionary evidences long enough to conclude evolution is a ‘fact’, and then later reinterpret those as evidence for some evolutionary mechanism.
Here is a shortened list of so-called examples of convergent evolution in mammals.
- Several groups of ungulates (hoofed mammals) have independently reduced or lost side digits on their feet, often leaving one or two digits for walking. That name comes from their hooves, which have evolved from claws several times. Among familiar animals, horses have one walking digit and domestic bovines two. Various other land vertebrates have also reduced or lost digits. We should note that the “just so” story of horse evolution has their hooves evolving in reverse order from multiple toes to a single toe in the modern horse (Equus).
- The pronghorn of North America while not a true antelope and only distantly related to them, closely resembles the true antelopes of the Old World, both behaviorally and morphologically. Thisalso fills a similar ecological niche and is found in the same biomes. Yet another example of the Lazarus taxon (living fossils) of which there are currently 11 reappearing fossil taxa; 26 plants; 7 Protostomes; 1 Fish; 13 Amphibians; 16 Mammals; 7 Reptiles; 31 Birds [Wikipedia (2014). Lazarus taxon. Accessed 5.31.14.]
- Members of the two clades Australosphenida and Theria evolved tribosphenic molars independently.
- The marsupial thylacine (Tasmanian tiger) had many resemblances to the placental canids.
- Several mammal groups have independently evolved prickly protrusions of the skin – echidnas (monotremes), the insectivorous hedgehogs, some tenrecs (a diverse group of shrew-like Madagascan mammals), Old World porcupines (rodents) and New World porcupines (another biological family of rodents). In this case, because the two groups of porcupines are closely related, they would be considered examples of parallel evolution; however, neither echidnas, nor hedgehogs, nor tenrecs are close relatives of the Rodentia. In fact, the last common ancestor of all of these groups was a contemporary of the dinosaurs.
- Cat-like sabre-toothed predators evolved in three distinct lineages of mammals – sabre-toothed cats, nimravids (“false” sabre-tooths), and the marsupial “lion” Thylacosmilus. Gorgonopsids and creodonts also developed long canine teeth, but with no other particular physical similarities.
- A number of mammals have developed powerful fore claws and long, sticky tongues that allow them to open the homes of social insects (e.g., ants and termites) and consume them (myrmecophagy). These include the four species of anteater, more than a dozen armadillos, eight species of pangolin (plus fossil species), the African aardvark, one echidna (an egg-laying monotreme), the enigmatic Fruitafossor, the singular Australian marsupial known as the numbat, the aberrant aardwolf, and possibly also the sloth bear of South Asia, all not related.
- Koalas of Australasia have evolved fingerprints, indistinguishable from those of humans.
- The Australian honey possums acquired a long tongue for taking nectar from flowers, a structure similar to that of butterflies, some moths, and hummingbirds, and used to accomplish the very same task.
- Marsupial sugar glider and squirrel glider of Australia are like the placental flying squirrel. Both lineages have independently developed wing-like flaps (patagia) for leaping from trees, and big eyes for foraging at night. [“Analogy: Squirrels and Sugar Gliders.” Understanding Evolution. The University of California Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved 28 September 2012.]
- The North American kangaroo rat, Australian hopping mouse, and North African and Asian jerboa have developed convergent adaptations for hot desert environments; these include a small rounded body shape with very large hind legs and long thin tails, a characteristic bipedal hop, and nocturnal, burrowing and seed-eating behaviors. These rodent groups fill similar niches in their respective ecosystems.
- Opossums have evolved an opposable thumb, a feature which is also commonly found in the non-related primates.
- Marsupial mole has many resemblances to the placental mole.
- Marsupial mulgara has many resemblances to the placental mouse.
- Planigale has many resemblances to the deer mouse.
- Marsupial Tasmanian devil has many resemblances to the placental hyena. They have similar skull morphology, large canines and crushing carnasial molars.
- Kangaroo has many resemblances to the Patagonian cavy and hares.
- The marsupial lion had retractable claws, the same way the placental felines (cats) do today.
- Microbats, toothed whales and shrews developed sonar-like echolocation systems used for orientation, obstacle avoidance and for locating prey. Modern DNA phylogenies of bats have shown that the traditional suborder of echolocating bats (Microchiroptera) is not a true clade, and instead some echolocating bats are more related to non-echolocating Old World fruit bats than to other echolocating species. The implication is that echolocation in at least two lineages of bats, Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera has evolved independently or been lost in Old World fruit bats.
- Echolocation in bats and whales also both necessitate high frequency hearing. The protein prestin, which confers high hearing sensitivity in mammals, shows molecular convergence between the two main clades of echolocating bats, and also between bats and dolphins. [Liu, Y, Rossiter SJ, Han X, Cotton JA, Zhang S (2010). "Cetaceans on a molecular fast track to ultrasonic hearing". Current Biology 20: 1834–1839.] [Davies KTJ, Cotton JA, Kirwan J, Teeling EC, Rossiter SJ (2011). "Parallel signatures of sequence evolution among hearing genes in echolocating mammals: an emerging model of genetic convergence". Heredity 108 (5).] Other hearing genes also show convergence between echolocating taxa. [Liu, Y, Rossiter SJ, Han X, Cotton JA, Zhang S (2010). Ibid.] Recently the first genome-wide study of convergence was published, this study analysed 22 mammal genomes and revealed that tens of genes have undergone the same replacements in echolocating bats and ceteaceans, with many of these genes encoding proteins that function in hearing and vision. [Parker, J; Tsagkogeorga, G; Cotton, JA; Liu, Y; Provero, P; Stupka, E; Rossiter, SJ (2013). "Genome-wide signatures of convergent evolution in echolocating mammals". Nature 502 (7470): , 228–231.]
- Both the aye-aye lemur and the striped possum have an elongated finger used to get invertebrates from trees. There are no woodpeckers in Madagascar (or Australia) where the species evolved. This explains the supply of invertebrates in trees was large.
- Castorocauda and beaver both have webbed feet and a flattened tail, but are not related.
- Prehensile tails came in to a number of unrelated species New World monkeys, kinkajous, porcupines, tree-anteaters, marsupial opossums, and the salamander Bolitoglossa pangolins, treerats, skinks and chameleons.
- Pig form, large-headed, pig-snouted and hoofs are independent in true pigs in Eurasia and peccary and entelodonts.
- Tapirs and pigs look much alike, but tapirs are perissodactyls (odd-toed ungulates) and pigs are artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates).
- Plankton feeding filters, like baleen: baleen whales like the humpback and blue whale, the whale shark, the basking shark, and the Mesozoic bony fish Leedsichthys have separately evolved ways of sifting plankton from marine waters.
- There are five species of river/freshwater dolphins, which are not closely related.
- Platypus have what looks like a bird's beak (hence its scientific name Ornithorhynchus), but is a mammal.
- Red blood cells in mammals lack a cell nucleus. In comparison, the red blood cells of other vertebrates have nuclei; the only known exceptions are salamanders of the Batrachoseps genus and fish of the Maurolicus genus.
- Caniforms like skunks and raccoons in North and South America and Feliforms such as mongoose and civets in Asia and Africa have both evolved to fill the nich of small to medium omnivore/insectivore on their side of the world. Some species of mongoose and civet can even spray their attacker with musk similar to the skunk and some civets have also independently evolved similar markings to the raccoon such as the African civet.[Wikipedia (2014). List of examples of convergent evolution. Accessed 5.31.14.]
Time does not allow for a complete list of convergent evolution that would include extinct reptiles, extant reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, fish, amphibians, arthropods, mollusks, plants and the numerous protein, enzyme and chemical pathways that have allegedly evolved from different ancestors or in different species. For some reason, the list in Wikipedia did not include the alleged convergent evolution of the compound eye in mammals and octopi. They do mention that vertebrates and octopuses developed the camera eye independently.
We also have the evidence of insects trapped in amber. There are more than 700 insect species representing 55 families of insects including an allegedly 15 million-year-old tick that have been identified inside amber. Among them are ancient bees, termites and ants — highly social insects that form some of the world’s most complex societies. What evolutionists will not tell you is that these specimens fossilized in amber are supposed to be tens to hundreds of millions of years old, but they are virtually identical to insects we see today.
Another important fact is that amber fossils are created when tree resin traps an insect (or some other debris) that is swept into it by the action of water. Amber is not rare; there are alleged 40 and 60 million-year-old mosquitoes trapped in amber. They too are virtually identical to their modern counterparts. There is a huge black market for insects trapped in amber. Most are forgeries foisted upon unsuspecting tourists. What we do know is a worldwide cataclysmic flood would have produced enormous amounts of amber as well as numerous examples of insects trapped therein.
What would creationists say about these findings? We would say that the Creator designed these features in different “kinds” so they could “be fruitful and multiply,” even in the harshest environments. All of these animals evolutionists claim are unrelated, are indeed related to the original baramin or kind. There are probably dozens more examples that evolutionists are leaving out of the list, like the Wollemi Pine that allegedly went extinct about 65 million years ago, but was found alive and well in Australia in 1994.
Global warming rears its ugly head
Dr. Tyson tells us, “During the intervening 50 million years, those trees had turned into immense deposits of coal. And, as it happened, one of the world’s largest accumulation of coal was buried right there in Siberia.” Now Dr. Tyson describes the reason for this great cataclysm. He tells us, “The heat from the lava baked the coal driving methane and sulfur rich gases out of the ground.” These billows of smoke were filled with toxic and radioactive ash particles – coal smoke. “This witch’s brew poisoned the atmosphere and radically changed the earth’s climate.” Tyson continues, “A sulfuric acid haze blocked the incoming sunlight and darkened the planet. Global temperatures plummeted to sub-freezing. In this eruption, the acid haze fell back to the surface. But the CO2 remained and built up in the atmosphere to cause, wait for it… wait for it… – global warming.”
Now Dr. Tyson shares the gloom and doom of it all saying, “Years of frigid cold alternating with millennia of stifling heat battered a dwindling population of plants and animals. They had no chance to adapt to the drastic changes in climate.” He continues to bang the global warming drum adding, “As the global warming continued, the surface in the bottom water slowly mixed raising temperature of the once frigid depths of the sea floor. Methane rich ice that had been frozen in these sediments began to melt. Newly liberated methane gas made its way to the surface and into the atmosphere.” We watch as the animators show us the methane slowly bubbling up out of the sea floor. Our narrator tells us the problem, “Methane traps heat far more efficiently than CO2 the climate gets even hotter.” Worse yet, “Methane destroyed the ozone layer in the atmosphere. The natural sunscreen that protects life from the deadly ultraviolet rays was eaten away. The circulatory system of the world’s ocean was shut down. These stagnant waters became CO2 starved killing almost all the fish in the sea.” Thankfully, Dr. Tyson tells us, “But one kind of life flourished in this brutal environment, bacteria that produce deadly hydrogen sulfide gas as a waste product. That was the last straw.”
“The poison gas killed almost all the remaining plants and animals in the land. This was the Great Dying; the closest life on earth has ever come to annihilation.” Dr. Tyson continues, “9 out of every 10 of all the species perished. It took a long time for life to bounce back.”
More millions of years as the evolutionary crow flies
“For a few million years, Earth could have been called the planet of the dead.” Yes, one more time Dr. Tyson plays the deep time card in order to hang all of evolutionary history on the framework of billions of years. What evolutionary scientists will not tell you is that these doomsday scenarios have changed over the years. In the late 1970’s nuclear winter was going to be the next great cataclysm. Then acid rain was going to trigger worldwide famine. Today, global warming is the next disaster facing the human race. Do you think there is a connection between the ozone layer being decimated by an over abundance of methane back in the far distant past and the possibly planet killing hole in the ozone layer we were told was caused by the rampant use of aerosol spray cans?
Dr. Tyson continues, “We are the descendants of one of the few species that managed to squeak by.” The next scene opens with a rodent-like critter sticking its head out and sniffing the air. Our narrator continues, “You are human and alive at this very moment because they managed to endure (I am assuming he means the rodent) and bring their DNA through one of the most treacherous periods in the history of human life.” No further information is given at this time concerning our long lost relative. I say long lost because like everything else in the world of Darwinian evolution, we had no idea about this critter until some scholar told us about it. However, the Great Dying is a relatively new addition to the evolutionary timeline with most of the scholarly articles on this subject appearing after 1990.
Still more millions and millions of years
Cut to a scene in the Midwest where Dr. Tyson says, “This mountain is made entirely by life. A life that flourished back in the glory days of the Permian before all hell broke loose.” We are told that this mountain is part of the 400-mile-long Guadalupe mountain chain that runs through Texas and New Mexico. It’s the world’s largest fossil reef. Dr. Tyson continues, “This was once a great inland sea. The reef flourished and for millions of years and was home to sponges and green algae and animals too small to see. When these creatures died, they sank to the bottom and were buried in the silt. In millions of years, their remains were converted into oil and gas. Eventually, the basin silted in and the reef died. This marine ghost town was then buried a mile below the surface. Later, tectonic forces lifted the reef high above sea level where it was eroded and sculpted over eons by wind and rain.” Now Dr. Tyson is standing on the top of this risen reef asking us to “imagine what this place looked like 275 million years ago when it was a vibrant tropical inland sea dotted with islands brimming with life.”
What would a world ravaged by a cataclysmic flood look like?
We really need to be clear about what creationists believe. Unlike those who see uniformitarianism as the key to understanding the earth’s past, we use the information in the Bible as our general guide. We know that our worldview will influence our interpretation of what we observe, but unlike evolutionists, we admit that our biblical bias is a factor. Evolutionists fail to acknowledge their own bias. They will readily admit that catastrophism has shaped much of the geology and topography of the earth, but they refuse to acknowledge the possibility that the flood described in chapters 7-8 of the Genesis account might be an historical fact.
Now we see Dr. Tyson standing next to a large spinning globe of the Earth as he says, “Until 220 million years ago, New England and North Africa were next door neighbors. There was no such thing as the Atlantic Ocean. The blue fingers at the center were lakes. They were the first outward signs that the supercontinent was splitting apart and that life on earth was due for another big shakeup.” Tyson continues, “A million years later, the lakes became a long bay that grew into the Atlantic Ocean.” We watch as the supercontinent splits apart. “These profound changes, Tyson tells us, at the surface were only symptoms of a drama that was unfolding below the surface in the depths of the earth.” Remember, this is a re-creation of what Dr. Tyson and the other purveyors of deep time think happened 220 million years ago. However, there is not one hint of that in this presentation. Everything being presented in this “best guess” is communicated as if it were an absolute historical fact. No “perhaps” or “maybe” or “we think this is how this might have happened” for these evolutionists.
Evolution provides assumptions galore
“By the time we got here, our narrator says, the telltale traces of the global upheaval were buried at the bottom of the deep blue sea. We were completely cut off from the great story of earth’s violent past.” Now we see an ancient map and Dr. Tyson tells us, “In 1570, Abraham Ortelius created the first modern world atlas reflecting the discoveries of the previous 80 years, the Age of Exploration. Before the ink was dry, Ortelius stepped back from his creation and was the first to notice the striking puzzle-piece-fit in the continents on either side of the Atlantic. He later wrote, we see this happening as Dr. Tyson continues to tell us, that the Americas were torn away from Africa by earthquakes and floods.”
At this time, I thought it would be good to pause and explain that creationists agree with many of the details with regard to the history of our planet. Our major disagreement is with the timeline of millions and billions of years, and the commitment to uniformitarian principles that evolutionary geologist’s consider foundational. If anyone has any doubt concerning the evolutionist’s commitment to his or her worldview, here is an excerpt from Wikipedia on the subject of the biblical flood.
Many adherents hold to a literal reading of Genesis 6-9 and view its passages to be historically accurate, where the Bible's internal chronology reliably places the Flood and the story of Noah's Ark within the last five thousand years. Flood geology contradicts the scientific consensus in geology, paleontology, physics, geophysics and stratigraphy and the scientific community considers it to be pseudoscience. [Wikipedia (2014). Flood Geology. Accessed 5.29.14.]
As those who look to the Word of God as the ultimate source of truth, we realize that Wikipedia is a website that is clearly biased towards the humanistic, atheistic evolutionary perspective. That said, we have also noted that “scientific consensus” has never been the arbitrator of what is and is not scientifically true. At one time, the scientific consensus was that our solar system was geocentric. Science had endorsed the concept that life could be generated spontaneously. Well, if you believe what the consensus is on that subject, you might conclude that the evolutionary scientists still do believe that non-living molecules can come to life by natural processes approximately 4.54 billion years ago. Even in this series, we have seen instances where several scientists had to buck the system, rejecting the scientific consensus of their day and Dr. Tyson holds them up as heroes of science.
Now he tells us that the hunch that Abraham Ortelius had concerning the Americas being torn from Africa by earthquakes and floods would not be proved for centuries. It was not until the early 20th century when a German astronomer and meteorologist amassed the evidence to build a scientific case for it. Dr. Tyson introduces us to Alfred Wegener (1880-1930). We are told, “Wegener was drafted into army during the First World War, but was wounded soon thereafter. As he recovered in a field hospital, he scoured scientific literature for clues to the earth’s past.” Once again, animation takes us to his study where we see Wegener reading what our narrator tells us “is an intriguing paper in the stacks of his university’s library.” Tyson continues, “It puzzled Wegener that fossils of the same species of an extinct fern were discovered on both sides of the Atlantic. With the discovery of the same dinosaur fossils on different continents, we are told the geologists of the 20th century imagined that land bridges once existed between them (the continents). It was thought that these bridges gradually disintegrated and vanished beneath the waves long ago. But there was a piece of evidence that convinced Wegener that the prevailing scientific view must be wrong.” Dr. Tyson let’s us hang for a couple of seconds before he tells the answer was, “the Earth itself.”
“Why would a mountain range cross the oceanic divide to continue on another continent?” Tyson continues, “And why would it form the same unique pattern in the layers of the rocks in both Brazil and South Africa? And another thing, under what circumstances could tropical plants have flourished in the frozen wastes of the artic? Wegener concluded that there was only one logical conclusion to this puzzle. There had once been a single supercontinent on Earth. He named it Pangaea.” Now we see the recurring theme of exalting scientists as heroes as Dr. Tyson takes time to explain, “You’d think that this would make Wegener the toast of the scientific world, right, not exactly.” Now we find out that Wegener’s colleagues “ridiculed his hypothesis of continental drift. They preferred their ‘imaginary’ natural land bridges to explain away Wegener’s evidence.” After all, “how could a continent plough through solid rock?”
Wegener was right about Pangaea and wrong about uniformitarianism
When you look at the evidence that, at one time, the continents were connected, and then you factor in to the equation a worldwide cataclysmic flood, the resulting continental drift would be a possible consequence of that flood. At this time, geologists did not know that the earth consisted of a relatively thin mantle wrapped around a core of molten iron. They had observed volcanic eruptions. Even the Bible describes such events, Bow thy heavens, O Lord, and come down: touch the mountains and they shall smoke, Ps. 144:5. Even so, most of the scientific community did not understand this aspect of the earth’s geology and Dr. Tyson tells us that Wegener “became a laughingstock in the field, a pariah at scientific conferences.”
Now we see an animation of Alfred Wegener traveling across a frozen landscape on a dogsled. Our narrator tells us, “In spite of this, Wegener continued to fight for his ideas, conducting daring research expeditions to gather evidence. On one of these, he discovered that colleagues had become trapped on an ice cap without food.” Now we see a figure slowly walking off into a snowstorm. Dr. Tyson continues, “On the way back from this rescue mission, he became lost in a blizzard. A day or two after his 50th birthday, he disappeared never knowing that in time, he would be vindicated and come to be viewed as one of the greatest geologists in history.”
If we look at the factors that are described in the Word of God concerning the Flood, we can see that the forces at play would be sufficient to create a world close to what we see today. As described in Genesis 7:11-12, the supercontinent was separated, ocean basins were uplifted and gigantic tsunamis engulfed this ancient land (40 days of flooding + 110 days of inundation = 150 days). The world remained inundated for 150 days (Genesis 7:24; 8:3) before waters began to recede. “Everything on dry land that had the breath of life…died.” (Genesis 7:22, NIV) Psalm 104:6-8 describes the subsidence of ocean basins, continental uplift, and drainage (164 days mountain uplift and drainage + 150 days inundation = 314 days). Another 56 days until the land was above sea level and the earth was completely dry (Genesis 8:2-5).
Scientists are human
Dr. Tyson is back on his spaceship when he tells us, “Scientists are human. We have our blind spots and prejudices.” While I was glad to hear Dr. Tyson admit that he was both flawed and prejudiced, I knew what was coming would show that sentiment to be superficial at best. He continued, “Science is a mechanism designed to ferret them out. The problem is, we are not always faithful to the values of science.” Now his spaceship opens up and we see a statue of a woman sitting in front of the Columbia University Library. Dr. Tyson continues, “Few people knew this better than Marie Tharp.” Back we go via animation to the past and it’s “1952, and Marie is patiently enduring the slights of her fellow members of the geology department. Her degrees in geology and mathematics count little for them. Bruce Heezen, a graduate student from Iowa has just returned from a lengthy expedition to map the ocean floor using sonar.”
Dr. Tyson goes on to tell us that Marie used the sonar mapping to confirm something she suspected, that there would be evidence of volcanic activity on the ocean floor that would correspond to the continents. Although her colleagues initially rejected her idea, years later Bruce Heezen acknowledged that she was right. “Together, Dr. Tyson tells us, they created the first true map of the earth including the ocean floor. They were at last able to read the autobiography of the earth.” The trouble will not be their findings that the continents do indeed drift; the problem will be their evolutionary assumption of deep time.
Dr. Tyson’s Spaceship of the Imagination is heading for the water. He tells us, “We are headed for a world that has been off limits to but a few of us. Two thirds of the earth lies beneath more than 1,000 feet of water. It’s a vast and largely unexplored frontier.” He continues, “Everyone knows the Alps and the Rockys, but one of the world’s most amazing mountain ranges are hidden from view. Below over 1,000 meters, we enter a world where there is no sunlight, hidden in the darkness, a world of wonders. This is the longest submarine mountain range in the world, the Atlantic Mid-ocean Range. It wraps around our globe like the seam of a baseball. The past is another planet, but most of us don’t really know this one. We don’t see mountains through the water. This is the world Marie Tharp was first to imagine.”
Now his spaceship heads down and he tells us, “We’ve now entered the Marianna Trench, the deepest canyon on earth, more than 10 km deep. It formed when tectonic forces pushed the seabed under the adjoining continental plate. More people have walked on the moon than have ever been down here.” Tyson notes, “The pressure here is a crushing 8 tons per square inch! Being this deep in the ocean is like having 50 jumbo jets stacked upon you.” Now, with a tone of wonder in his voice Dr. Tyson tells us, “Even here, life has taken hold.” While Dr. Tyson may be genuinely surprised to find life in the depths of the sea, those who have placed their faith in the Creator know that He instilled in living organisms the ability to adapt. He foresaw the changes that would follow the Fall. He created life to “be fruitful and multiply,” even in adverse circumstance and the harshest environments. God stated the command to “be fruitful and multiply” twice in the opening chapter of the Bible, Gen. 1:22, 28, and three times after Noah’s flood, Gen. 8:17, 9:1, 7.
Everywhere we look, in the harshest of circumstances, life thrives. It is designed to adapt by the Creator. It is the deception used by evolutionists to bait and switch using adaptation as evidence that all life is descended from a single microorganism. Even the proponents of this theory know that all the connections between various life forms are missing. There’s not just one or two missing links, there is not one single uncontested example of a transitional fossil. Consider the following quotes from prominent evolutionary scientists of the past.
“Given the fact of evolution, one would expect the fossils to document a gradual steady change from ancestral forms to the descendants. But this is not what the paleontologist finds. Instead, he or she finds gaps in just about every phyletic series.” [Ernst Mayr-Professor Emeritus, Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, What Evolution Is, 2001, p.14.]
“All paleontologists know that the fossil record contains precious little in the way of intermediate forms; transitions between major groups are characteristically abrupt. Gradualists usually extract themselves from this dilemma by invoking the extreme imperfection of the fossil record.” [Gould, Stephen J. The Panda’s Thumb, 1980, p. 189.]
“He [Darwin] prophesied that future generations of paleontologists would fill in these gaps by diligent search….It has become abundantly clear that the fossil record will not confirm this part of Darwin’s predictions. Nor is the problem a miserably poor record. The fossil record simply shows that this prediction was wrong.” [Eldridge, Niles, The Myths of Human Evolution, 1984, pp.45-46.]
The lack of intermediate forms in the fossil record is so ubiquitous, that Niles Eldridge and Stephen J. Gould (1942-2002) had to postulate that they were missing because life was making great leaps forward in a short timeframe relative to the millions and billions of years of evolutionary time. So they would present evolutionary change as happening in spurts between periods of relative stability or stasis. [Eldredge, Niles & Gould, S. J. (1972). Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism. In T.J.M. Schopf, ed., Models in Paleobiology. San Francisco: Freeman Cooper. pp. 82-115.] With this in mind, evolution could have their cake of long ages with little change in the fossil record (stasis) and with these sudden bursts of vertical change; they could have and eat their cake as well. This was indeed a very clever way of turning a lack of evidence, stasis in within species, into evidence on behalf of Darwinian evolution.
As we see marine life forms glowing in the dark, Dr. Tyson tells us, “Underwater species literally glow in the dark through a process known as bioluminescence. Over our long history as land mammals of a sunlit world hadn’t prepared us for the amazing variety of life that evolution has crafted in the deep ocean.” What is missing from the explanation of bioluminescence is the fact that this is an example of convergent evolution. This same ability seems to have evolved not, once, not twice or three times, but no less than eight times.
Some examples of the possible the adaptive functions of bioluminescence as a behavior due to selective pressures include:
Dinoflagellates: use bioluminescence as a defense mechanism.
Anglerfish: uses a specific bioluminescent organ appendage as bait to capture prey.
Dragonfish: uses bioluminescence for different signals and functions by producing different wavelengths of light.
Fireflies: use light production to attract and signal potential mates
Shrimp species (Systellaspis debilis): uses bioluminescence as a defense against predators by squirting a concealing cloud of symbiotic bioluminescent bacteria.
Some marine organisms use bioluminescence as camouflage in light-penetrated waters – masks ability to be seen.
Millipedes, centipedes, worms: use bioluminescence as warning sign to potential predators.
Bacterial bioluminescence has been postulated to have been developed as a result of the chemical process of producing light facilitating DNA repairs. [Miller, Caitlin & Dansky, Madeline (2010). Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates. Biology 342 Fall 2010 curriculum. Accessed 5.31.14.]
I know that the audience has been brainwashed from infancy to believe that evolution has mystical creative powers, so I am not surprised that Dr. Tyson is granting creative abilities to the mechanisms of natural selection (survival of the fittest) and the occasional beneficial mutation. Now, barely half way through the miniseries, suffice it to say that neither natural selection nor the ever-elusive beneficial mutations are creative processes. Evolution itself is not a creative process, except in the wishful thinking of those who embrace it as such. It is about death and probable extinction. Genetic mutations are errors in the genetic code that are usually neutral, going unnoticed in the grand scheme of things. However, when these mutations are noticed, they are rarely, if ever, beneficial.
We are told that the lack of sunlight deep in the depths of the ocean means that no photosynthesis can occur. With no plants to feed on, Dr. Tyson explains, “Even here in a world of permanent midnight there’s a thriving food chain.” Now we are introduced to the process of chemosynthesis. We see vents on the ocean floor spewing what we will be told are toxic hydrogen sulfides into the surrounding water. One man’s poison is evidently another microorganism’s dinner, because tiny crustaceans are chowing down on the microorganisms that are eating this chemical compound. “One day on some future earth, Dr. Tyson tells us, these mountains could very well end up above the water. Tectonic forces continue to shape our planet. The future is another planet.”
Now we see a volcano erupting as Dr. Tyson tells us, “It was a volcano like this one that created the Hawaiian Islands.” Our narrator is in his spaceship again shooting back into orbit around the earth. Dr. Tyson tells us, “We live on the crust of a seething cauldron. At the center of our planet is an iron core. It’s nested inside a liquid iron shell and wrapped over with the part of the earth called the mantle. It’s rocky, but hot and viscous, like a pot of soup cooking on a stove, the mantle is churning. What keeps it churning?” Dr. Tyson tells us. “Two things, the heat left over from the earth’s formation and the decay of radioactive elements in the core. Moreover, this outer layer, the crusts where you and me and everyone we know lives, is only as thin as the skin of an apple. The mantle drags the solid overlying crust along with it. The crust resists becomes cool and rigid. From time to time, it reaches a breaking point and, when that happens, the earth quakes.”
Back we go to those ancient Greek pagans
Remember, we have already seen the producers of this series present their atheistic view of religion. They took time to explain that a Greek philosopher, Thales, aside from his proclivity for partying and endulging in alcohol, rejected the idea of paganism. He taught his students that acts of nature were not connected to a vengeful deity. Dr. Tyson held him up as an unsung hero of science saying, “It’s not because somebody misbehaved and is being punished, it’s due to random forces that are governed by the laws of nature.” (Emphasis added) Really, is that what the Bible teaches, absolutely not! Once again, evolutionists are using deception to ridicule people of faith. They purposely ignore the Word of God in order to present this straw man by holding up pagans as examples of Bible believing people, those who trust in the veracity of the Hebrew Scriptures. They present pagans as people who believe in God or gods, so they can show how foolish faith in a higher power is. There is nothing new here; brainwashing, censorship and deception are the hallmarks of evolutionary theory.
More modern paganism in the guise of enlightened atheism
Dr. Tyson continues his deep time mantra telling us, “Our sense of the stability of the earth is an illusion due to the shortness of our lives.” He continues, “If we could watch our planet on its own timescale (the millions and billions of years of evolution) in which big changes take millions of years to play out, we would see it as the dynamic organism it really is. One more time, Dr. Tyson shares his true views. He is not really an atheist. He self identifies as an agnostic, but the philosophy he exhibits in this miniseries is Animist. He believes that the earth is a living breathing entity. More than that, he has already voiced his opinion that we are all made of stardust. You can say he is waxing poetic, but I believe we are seeing or, better yet, hearing who Dr. Tyson really is.
Through the magic of animation, we see the earth morph into a different configuration as Dr. Tyson tells us, “This is the world of the late Triassic period, about 200 million years ago.” Now we are once again looking at that small rodent who, against all odds, survived the “Great Dying.” Dr. Tyson tells us, “That little fellow, he’s one of our distant ancestors. He lived in Newark, New Jersey.” Now we get more deep time brainwashing. After all, it must have been at least an entire minute since we heard the mantra of millions and millions of years. This time it’s 200 million years and our narrator continues, “Whenever you walk on earth, lost worlds lie buried beneath your feet. 50 or 100 million years ago, even the most ordinary places have been the scene of epic change.”
More uniformitarian “just so” stories
Now we see the New Jersey palisades and Dr. Tyson tells us, “These palisades are monuments to the break up of the supercontinent Pangaea. The sequence of volcanic eruptions that made these cliffs, also led to the next mass extinction, the one that ends the Triassic world. But, a catastrophic extinction event for one species is a golden opportunity for another.” He continues, “The Triassic extinctions offered one group the chance to take center stage. The dinosaurs had a good long run for 170 million years. Back then, India was an island. It crept northward at the pace of a few inches per year on its slow and inexorable rendezvous with Asia. Once again, the molten rock under the surface burst forth and flooded a huge area of Western India. The knock out punch came literally out of the blue.”
I know that the stage is being set for yet another trip to the Hall of Extinction. In spite of the fact that we are seeing examples of catastrophic events quickly reshaping the earth’s topography, the series remains committed to the uniformitarian model. This is especially true if you look at the biblical model of the flood. This was a global event. It would have triggered enormous volcanic activity, coupled with powerful earthquakes and resulting tsunamis. We have enough evidence that water can literally move mountains; create massive canyons and other unique features that are common to flood geology in a relatively short timeframe. Even evolutionary geologists admit there is a catastrophic aspect to what we see on earth, blaming huge geologic formations on local floods. When it comes to the possibility of a huge amount of water, as described in the book of Genesis, causing the breaking up of the supercontinent in months, not hundreds of millions of years, they ridicule the idea.
Now the stage is set for another evolutionary villain. It is not going to like any of the previous extinction events. No, this one will not originate here on earth at all. Now we are back on the spaceship where we see a huge meteor headed right for you know where. The animators recreate the impact of this doomsday impact as Dr. Tyson tells us, “Few animals over 100 pounds survived the catastrophe of the Late Cretaceous Period. The dust cloud that brought night and cold to the surface for months. The dinosaurs froze and starved to death. But those small creatures who took shelter in the earth, when they emerged, they found that the hunters who had hunted and terrorized them gone. The earth was becoming the planet of the mammals. And the earth continued its ceaseless changing.”
The Spaceship of the Imagination has landed, and Dr. Tyson is standing in a rural landscape saying, “This was once a desert where nothing could grow. It was a million square miles of sand and salt, far more hostile than any environment on earth today. Daytime temperatures were hot enough to bake bread, and it was more than a mile below sea level.” Dr. Tyson continues by telling us, “So the atmospheric pressure was about 50% higher than we’re used to.” We are told, “This used to be the basin of the Mediterranean 5 ½ million years ago, before it became a sea. The earth never stops moving for long.”
Now we see a map showing what Dr. Tyson calls “a natural dam.” He tells us, “It gave way, possibly due to earthquakes.” We now see a huge waterfall pouring water into the Mediterranean basin as our narrator says, “And the deluge began.” I thought that his choice of words was interesting. He is describing the immense power of water to shape the earth, moving continents, creating seas and filling oceans. If I did not know better, I would think he was describing the worldwide cataclysmic flood described in the book of Genesis. Dr. Tyson continued, “The torrential water rushed in at a rate 40,000 times greater than Niagara Falls turning a vast desert into the Mediterranean Sea in less than a year.” (Emphasis added)
I almost could not believe my ears. Was Dr. Tyson describing an event that literally transformed the face of the earth in less than a year? When we read the description of what transpired during the flood in the days of Noah, we are told …on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was on the earth forty days and forty nights, Gen. 7:11-12. The result of the unleashing this much water on the earth is exactly what transpired. One of the criticisms of the biblical account is the fact that there are many flood legends and even written accounts of this type of cataclysm such as the Sumerian Flood Epic of Gilgamesh. The date of this poem is traced to the early third dynasty 2011- 2000 BC. Earlier versions can be traced back to the historical reign of Gilgamesh in 2700 BC. [Roux, George (1991). Ancient Iraq 3rd Ed. London, England: Penguin Books, pp. 123, 502.]
Any explanation for what caused the catastrophe the Bible calls Noah’s flood should take into account other events that were recorded around the world at the same time. There is now no doubt that 5,200 years ago, something happened that caused glaciers to instantly freeze in the Andes and Alps, changed the Sahara Desert from wetlands to one of the driest places on earth, and caused civilization all over the world to record that a great flood took place.
There are also the several similarities between the account in the book of Genesis and the Sumerian Flood Epic. Both accounts relate the story of a cataclysmic flood accompanied by torrential rain, earthquakes, dark skies with thunder and lightning, devastation beyond belief, and an after effect that lasted for months after the waters receded. In both accounts, there was only one survivor. In fact, other cultures have generated their own flood stories. We would expect this oral tradition would be instilled in the lives of those who descended from the children of Noah. We should also note that the counterfeit account(s) do not carry the negative connotation we usually associate with the term “myth.” In this case, the fact that there are many accounts of a cataclysmic flood does not mean that the faith, which was once for all delivered to the saints, Jude 1:3, is in the same category as Greek mythology. In the case of these flood epics,the counterfeits are evidence that these stories have their foundation in a real historical event recorded in the book of Genesis.
More evolutionary brainwashing
Dr. Tyson tells us, “There were no humans to witness this enormous flood or to admire the beauty it created.” In the history envisioned by the millions and billions of years of evolutionary time, humans did not show up yet. Therefore, Dr. Tyson has to make certain that he repeats the timeline enough times that you will never question it. This has been the case for the past 150 years. He continues, “Meanwhile, a half a world away, a broad channel separated North and South America allowing a great ocean to flow from the Atlantic into the Pacific Ocean.” We actually see this occurring as Dr. Tyson continues, “Tectonic forces gradually brought these two continents together.” As we hear this, we see Central America emerge from beneath the water connecting the two continents. Our narrator continues, “Closing the channel and creating the Isthmus of Panama. This reorganized the pattern of ocean currents. This in turn affected the global climate.”
Two things came to mind as I observed this part of the program. First, we have been told that these massive changes had taken place in less than a year. Now you understand why the uniformitarian model cannot explain much of what has transpired to transform the face of the planet. Was it a worldwide cataclysmic flood or the slow process of uniformitarian geology? If it is the former, then what should we make of the millions and billions of years being repeatedly promoted by the atheistic authors of this miniseries? Secondly, I happen to know that the scientist who discovered the ocean currents was a creationist. Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873) was an officer in the United States Navy as well as an astronomer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist and educator. He was nicknamed “Pathfinder of the Seas” and “Father of Modern Oceanography and Naval Meteorology” and later, “Scientist of the Seas,” due to the publication of his extensive works in his books, especially The Physical Geography of the Sea (1855), the first extensive and comprehensive book on oceanography to be published. Maury made many important new contributions to charting winds and ocean currents, including ocean lanes for passing ships at sea. [Wikipedia (2014. Matthew Fontaine Maury. Accessed 5.25.14.]
Several accounts suggest that Maury was so confident about God’s Word that his mapping of ocean currents resulted directly from reading or hearing about the “paths of the seas” in Psalm 8:8. Some go on to suggest that ocean currents would have remained hidden unless Maury had read this passage in the Bible. Why would this series fail to mention this prestigious man of science? Perhaps it was because his inspiration for his work was ultimately based on his commitment to the Word of God and his personal Savior Jesus Christ. Maury gained insight into the sciences from the Bible. Dan Graves, author and biographer of men and women of faith listed Matthew Maury among his 48 great Scientists of Faith. He did so on ground that: Maury lived by the Scriptures; he fully and unconditionally believed in what the Holy Scriptures stated; he hardly ever spoke or wrote without the inclusion of scriptural references; he prayed every day. [Graves, Dan (1996). Scientists of Faith: 48 Biographies of Historic Scientists and Their Christian Faith. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications.pp. 117-120.]
After telling us about the massive and relatively fast changes that created the Pacific Ocean and a connected North and South America, Dr. Tyson picks up where he left off. He begins the “just so” story of human evolution with the geographic changes that alleged lead up to the appearance of human beings on planet Earth. “The lust green forest canopy (that existed prior to this year of cataclysmic changes) gave way to a sparser landscape. Some species that were ‘adapted’ to life in the trees became extinct.”
He means our primate cousins that failed to make the change from their canopy condos in the branches, to the ground floor digs that replaced the trees. He continues, “But the generalists, the ones that could find a way to make a living no matter what life threw at them, they endured and evolved.” (Emphasis added)
So there you have it, Dr. Tyson and his atheistic colleagues have said it, so it must be so. Of course, there’s always those pesky things called verifiable facts that seem to be missing, but who cares about those when you have a godless, entirely blind faith-based worldview to support what you believe. This miniseries has already laid the foundation that ancient pagans were just these superstitious no nothings, who managed to survive and thrive until they could become educated scientists, and not just educated scientists, but educated secular scientists at that. It is one thing to be able to understand how life functions; it is another to become filled with pride to the point of denying the One who created that life and then bowing at the altar of “man is the measure of all things,” because evolution has made him the most successful of creatures.
Here comes the mouse-to-ape-to-man “just so” story
“Our ancestors once burrowed deep into the ground to avoid the predators who stalked the surface.” I am assuming he is referring to the dinosaurs when Dr. Tyson continues, “But when the dinosaurs perished, they emerged into the daylight, and over eons made new lives in the branches of the trees.” No mention as to how these four-legged rodents made the move from their cozy underground borrows into the treetops. Now we see a chimpanzee managing to hang around the branches of a tree as Dr. Tyson tells us, “They developed opposable thumbs and toes for swinging from branch to branch in the broad canopy of the tree tops where all their needs were fulfilled. They could also walk upright, but only for short distances.” Dr. Tyson tells us, “With so many trees to climb, they didn’t have go far. But then is got colder, and the trees thinned out, broad grasslands sprang up and our ancestors began to transverse them in search of food.” By this time, the “just so” story of human evolution is in high gear. I had to remind myself that this is the evolutionist’s version of reality based on their rejection of the truth. Whenever you reject the truth, the only thing left is a lie and this version of “out of Africa” is a whopper.
Now Dr. Tyson explains, “We needed a totally different skill set to make it on the savannah. In the old days, you could sit perched on a tree branch and watch the big cats from a safe distance. Now you were playing on the same dangerous field.” Now we see a saber-toothed cat (Smilodon) and our narrator tells us, “The ones that survived were the ones that evolved the ability to walk great distances on their hind legs and run when necessary. This changed the way they looked at the world.” Well, I would think it would. The problem with these “just so” stories is that they are fictional, they are stories meant to make you think this is possible. They do not have the physical evidence for their tall tales, but that doesn’t matter. What matters is that you believe their premise that the evolution can transform stardust into people and all by natural processes.
Dr. Tyson is not finished, he tells us, “Hands and arms were no longer tied up with walking (or swinging from trees), they were free to gather food, pick up sticks and bones, and these could be used as weapons and tools. Think of it, a change in the topography, a small piece of land half a world away, re-routes ocean currents, it grows colder and drier and most of the trees can’t withstand the change in the climate. The primates that lived in them had to seek other homes and, before you know it, they’re using them to reshape the planet.” Now if that is not an excellent example of evolutionary “just so” story telling, I don’t know what is. It is here that we are given another poetic bit of evolutionary dogma as we hear our narrator say, “The earth has shaped the course of human destiny, but so has the invisible pull of distant worlds.”
And off we go on the Spaceship of the Imagination
With Dr. Tyson at the helm of his spaceship, we see the planet Jupiter off in the distance of space. The camera focuses on the big red spot as we hear, “The planets have influenced our lives, not the way you think. The gravitational pull of Venus, small but close, and that of Jupiter, distant, but massive.” Now we see a visual of the earth as it tilts on its axis as Dr. Tyson say, “This way and that, ever so slightly tweaked the shape of its orbit” and we see the circular orbit morph into an elliptical pattern. This periodically altered the amount of sunlight falling on the edge of our northern ice cap. Sometimes it made the summers there colder and the glaciers advanced southward from one year to the next grinding, scraping, crushing everything in their path.” Now Dr. Tyson explains, “That’s what we call an Ice Age. Changes in the earth’s axis and orbit made the Artic summers warmer and the melting glaciers began to retreat.” As our narrator has done throughout this series, he alternately praises our ancestors while letting us know that they were either newly evolved from their tree swinging African ape ancestors or their more civilized relatives, the primitive cavemen Then he presents their even more sophisticated relatives, the pagans of ancient Greece.
Atheists reject the Creator; they cannot understand that man has not evolved at all. There has been no evolution of Homo sapiens. Because of the Fall recorded in the book of Genesis chapter three, man has been devolving, not evolving. Now it was time to pay our primitive ancestors a compliment. We hear Dr Tyson say, “Imagine how resourceful our ancestors had to be in order to survive these radical changes in climate. With each glacial period the ice sheets grow at the expense of the oceans.” We get a chance to see this illustrated through animation as he continues, “The world’s sea level falls by more than 400 feet uncovering wide areas of land along the edges of the continents. 15-20 thousand years ago, there was a period when the ice receded exposing a temporary land bridge, a gateway to half the planet swings open creating a land bridge to North America and parts south. About 10 thousand years ago, the madjik swings of the climate and sea levels came to a stop. A new and gentler climate age began. It’s the one we live in now.”’
If you are thinking that the time span for these changes corresponds roughly to the biblical account of Noah’s worldwide flood, and the resulting Ice Age it would have caused, you would be on the right track. But this miniseries will never offer any alternative interpretations of what they observe. That would violate their long standing policy of censoring any information that might cast doubt on their version of the history of all things.
We are told, “When the great ice sheets melted, the sea rose to its present height.” As the description continues, we see rivers bringing silt down from the highlands creating a delta where it empties into the sea. “Along with those fertile plains, Dr. Tyson tells us, we learned a new way of life, how to grow things to feed ourselves. And more, for most of us, this meant an end to a million years of wandering.” There you have it; this is the “just so” story of the evolution of man. Tree dwellers became short-distance walkers -> who became long-distance walkers -> who became hunter gatherers -> who transitioned to farming and the story of modern civilization begins. Somewhere along the way, mammals evolved opposable thumbs (and toes for the monkeys), but those opposable toes had to conveniently disappeared when the primates began to walk upright for long distances.
“The way the planets tug at each other, the way these motions affect climate and the evolution of life and intelligence, they all combined to give us the means to turn that mud of the river deltas into the first civilizations.” Well, I guess I should have just let our narrator summarize this particular “just so” story. After all, it was atheistic scientists who first cobbled this story together, but not before rejecting the biblical account. He sums this up by telling us, “There’s nothing like an interglacial period. We see valleys and plateaus, one of those balmy intermissions in an Ice Age.” Dr. Tyson is not finished as he exclaims, “And great news, this one is due to last another 50,000 years! What a break for our kind.”
All living organisms reproduce “after their own kind”
Don’t think that Dr. Tyson is using the biblical model of kinds. When creationists refer to biblical ‘kinds’ they use the biblical word for categories of living organisms. They coined a term “baramin” that is the combination of two Hebrew words, bara the biblical word meaning created and min the Hebrew word for kind. What we actually see in nature corresponds perfectly with what God originally intended for the created kinds. The Creator designed the genetic code for all living things. This code is specifically written so that all organisms will reproduce themselves according to their own kind. In nature, we do not see the phylogenetic trees that evolutionists use to connect every living organism back to the original single celled microorganism. Those phylogenetic trees look like this.
Evolutionary scientists have been categorizing organisms using these phylogenetic trees intended to illustrate early representations of branching. The first use of a paleontological chart showing the geological relationships among plants and animals is traced in the book Elementary Geology, by Edward Hitchcock (first edition: 1840).
Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species in 1859 also made use of this type of diagram showing the inferred evolutionary relationships between living organisms.
They can be broken down into very specific organisms with their connection to their closest common ancestor. This diagram represents the large categories of life. Smaller, more specific phylogenetic trees are created within species. With the introduction of other categories, charts based on other features, morphological or molecular, called cladograms are used to reconstruct phylogenies. [Wikipedia (2014). Cladograms. Generating a Cladogram. Accessed 5.27.14.]
The problem with such ‘inferred’ relationships is that the actual evidence for these connections is missing. This is the reason that paleontologists Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) and Niles Eldridge formulated their Theory of Punctuated Equilibria (or sometimes Equilibrium). Creationists are often maligned by the defenders of Darwin of misquoting Dr. Gould. These evolutionary apologists accuse creationists of quoting Dr. Gould and other evolutionists out of context. Let me be very clear about this, Dr. Gould was not commenting on the lack of evidence in order to disprove the Theory of Evolution. He simply stated the truth that most transitional fossils were missing from the fossil record. That is the reason he wrote the following.
The extreme rarity of transitional forms in the fossil record persist as the trade secret of paleontology. The evolutionary trees that adorn our textbooks have data only at the tips and nodes of their branches; the rest is inference, however reasonable, not the evidence of fossils ….We fancy ourselves as the only true students of life's history, yet to preserve our favored account of evolution by natural selection we view our data as so bad that we never see the very process we profess to study. [Gould, Stephen J. (1987). "Evolution's Erratic Pace," Natural History, vol. 86 (May 1987), p. 14.]
This was something that Dr. Gould repeated in his other writings. Creationists have a different model that is biblically based. Our phylogenetic tree(s) are not connected to a series of as yet unknown common ancestors. They actually do reflect what we find in nature. The picture below is based on the creationist model as described in the Genesis account. Rather than a tree with a growing number of branches traced back to a microorganism, we have an orchid where each branch is separated by kind. The bacterial stem would show other related kinds of microorganism connected by progeny, not some inferred relationship of common ancestry that does not exist in nature.
More billions of years to accommodate evolution’s timeline
Just one problem, climate change will kill us all
Dr. Tyson takes us from this rosy prognosis for those living in this interglacial period, “Just one problem, we can’t keep burning all those buried trees from the Carboniferous period.” We see coal seams pressed between the layers of rock deposits. He is referring to the coal and the remains of ancient plankton in the form of oil and gas. Dr. Tyson tells us, “If we could, we’d be home free climate-wise.” Now we see numerous scenes of industrial smokestacks spewing CO2 and other toxic gases into the atmosphere. “Instead, our narrator continues, we’re dumping CO2 into the atmosphere at a rate the earth hasn’t seen, since the climate catastrophes of the past.” He evidently needs to communicate the urgency behind this warning as he tells us, “The ones that led to mass extinctions” as more pollution is seen wafting up into the sky from trucks and motorcycles with the riders wearing surgical masks to filter out the pollution.
“We just can’t seem to break our addiction to the kinds of fuel that will bring back a climate last seen by the dinosaurs.” Moreover, in a series of statements that would make Al Gore proud, Dr. Tyson tells us, “That will drown the coastal cities and wreak havoc on the environment and our ability to feed ourselves.” Now we see a jumbo jet spewing exhaust out the backs of its jet engines. It must have seemed the perfect time to pitch the benefits of solar energy, because Dr. Tyson tells us, “All the while, the glorious sun pours immaculate free energy down upon us. More than we will ever need. Why can’t we summon the ingenuity and courage of the generation that came before us? The dinosaurs never saw that asteroid coming. What’s our excuse?”
Once again, we see Dr. Tyson walking towards the Halls of Extinction. Arriving inside, he points to one of the halls saying, “There’s a corridor in the Halls of Extinction that is right now empty and unmarked. The autobiography of the earth is still being written. There’s a chance that the end of our story lies in there.”
It is here that the miniseries takes the time to re-trace the evolution on life on earth using line drawings. They correspond to Dr. Tyson retelling the entire “just so” story of biological evolution beginning with a single celled microorganism that suddenly becomes a series of lines representing an amoeba, then simple marine life gives rise to fish that become amphibians. Our narrator is telling us, “There is an unbroken thread that stretches more than 3 billion-years that connects us to the first life that ever touched our world.” He continues, “Think of how tough resourceful and lucky all of our countless ancestors must have been to survive long enough to pass the message of life to the next and the next (by this time the dinosaurs are morphing into mammals) and the next generation. Hundreds of millions of times before it came to us.” Now we see different faces of people of different cultures, ages, ethnicities as Dr. Tyson continues, “There were so many rivers to cross, so many hazards along the way, predators, starvation, disease, miscalculation, long winters, drought, flood, violence, not to mention the occasional upheavals that erupted from within our planet with apocalyptic bolts that came from the blue.” More faces of more people continue to morph on the screen, as we hear, “No matter where we hail from, no matter who our parents were, we are descended from the heartiest survivors of unimaginable catastrophes. Each of us is a runner in the longest, most dangerous relay race that ever was. And at this moment we hold the baton in our hands.” Cut to a shot of a baby’s hand being grasped by an adult hand.
Now we’re back, orbiting the earth and Dr. Tyson continues, “The past is another planet, and so is the future. Some 250 million years from now, many geologists think the lands of the earth will be united once again.” And just as this is being narrated, we see the continents of the earth returning to their original position as parts of the supercontinent Pangaea. Cut to the scene of a waterfall with Dr. Tyson telling us, “All this beauty will vanish and the earth of our moment in time will take its place among the lost worlds. The great internal engine of plate tectonics is indifferent to life as one of the small changes in the earth’s orbit, its tilt and the occasional collisions with little worlds on rogue orbits. These processes have no notion of what has been going on for billions of years on our planet’s surface. They do not care.”
Creationists allege that all the changes in the earth’s topography can be traced back to a worldwide cataclysmic flood. What if the extinction events are cobbled together and given vastly different timelines so atheists can tell their own version of the history? What if the evolutionary timeline for the Grand Canyon is wrong? Dr. Tyson has already told us that massive changes took place that transformed continents an entire ocean away from one another in less than a year’s time. Creationists posit those geologic formations were the result of one earth shattering event in the days of Noah. What if evolutionists have a biased worldview has blinded them to the truth? These big questions that have to be answered if we are going to look at all the evidence, confront the brainwashing, deception and censorship have shaped the evolutionary worldview in so many institutions of higher learning.
The Spaceship of the Imagination glides over a nighttime view of earth. Our narrator tells us, “Each of us is a tiny being riding on the outer most skin of one of the smaller planets for a few dozen trips around the local star.” We now see a close up of our sun as Dr. Tyson continues, “The things that lived the longest on earth endure for only about a millionth of the age of our planet. So, of course, the individual organisms have seen nothing of the overall pattern of changing continents, climate, and evolution.” I must say that Dr. Tyson is correct when he says we have seen nothing concerning the evolution of life on planet earth. He does not mean it that way; he is attempting to continue to the brainwashing scenario of millions and billions of years. In doing so, he thinks that everyone will agree with his view of history. He continues, “That we understand even a little of our origins is one of the great triumphs of human insight and courage.” We already know that Dr. Tyson is an atheist who sees human beings as the pinnacle of the evolutionary hierarchy. In his view, it is a great triumph for man to reject his Creator, deny the true history of the creation of the universe as recorded in God’s Word as well as a denying that men and women are created in the image of God. For him, man is the result of a series of cosmic events, strung together in a materialistic story of everything, where nothing produces something and that something produces everything else. All of this is without meaning, so he and others of his ilk really do see man’s survival as something courageous and man’s fanciful atheistic musings as “a triumph of human insight.”
He continues his ode to humanity by asking, “Who we are and why we are here can only be glimpsed by piercing together something of the full picture which must encompass eons of time.” Now we see the strands of the DNA molecule come together as if made of stars that become the starlight night sky. Cut to a shot of the Halls of Extinction with Dr. Tyson walking towards it. He says, “In this perspective, it’s not surprising that we’re a mystery to ourselves. That, despite our manifest pretension we’re far from being masters of our own house.” Now the camera pans towards that empty corridor seen earlier. He says, “This new corridor has no name on the entrance to designate its epoch and we don’t yet know which failed species will be memorialized within its walls. What happens here in countless ways both large and small is being written by us, right now.” Now the camera looks down that unnamed corridor in the Halls of Extinction, leaving us with that uncertain future of our own possible doom.
This is how the 8th episode in the Cosmos series ends. Let me share with you that the Bible is the accurate account of the history of humankind on planet earth. It tells us how everything began and how it will end. We have the warning that the Apostle Peter given to the believers of the first century AD. He warned them that people would willfully deny that God had previously judged humanity for its wickedness. He wrote to them:
1 Beloved, I now write to you this second epistle (in both of which I stir up your pure minds by way of reminder), 2 that you may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us, the apostles of the Lord and Savior, 3 knowing this first: that scoffers will come in the last days, walking according to their own lusts, 4 and saying, “Where is the promise of His coming? For since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of creation.” 5 For this they willfully forget: that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of water and in the water, 6 by which the world that then existed perished, being flooded with water. 7 But the heavens and the earth which are now preserved by the same word, are reserved for fire until the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men…II Peter 3:1-7
Do not let this atheistic version of reality deceive you. God has written history of the world as prophecy. Everything He before ordained with regard to the coming of His Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth, has happened exactly as He said it would. We can rest assured that His prophetic accuracy will remain 100 percent with regard to the future. Man is not going to become extinct, but this present world, with its self-righteous lies that deny the One who not only created them, but also sent His own Son to pay the penalty for the sins of men, including atheists like Dr. Tyson.
10 But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. 11 Therefore, since all these things will be dissolved, what manner of persons ought you to be in holy conduct and godliness, 12 looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be dissolved, being on fire, and the elements will melt with fervent heat? 13 Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells.
14 Therefore, beloved, looking forward to these things, be diligent to be found by Him in peace, without spot and blameless; 15 and consider that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation—as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, has written to you, 16 as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which untaught and unstable people twist to their own destruction, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures.
17 You therefore, beloved, since you know this beforehand, beware lest you also fall from your own steadfastness, being led away with the error of the wicked; 18 but grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
To Him be the glory both now and forever. Amen
NOTE: I thought you might want to see how many times the evolutionary propagandists were emphasizing the millions and billions of years of deep time. We did this previously during episode 5. Tens or hundreds of millions was said 4 times;Billions of years were said 6 times.
(Episode 8) Tens to Hundreds of Millions of Years Billions of Years
27 times 5 times